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Cyclone
Cyclone separators have been used in the United States for about 100 years, and are still one of the most widely used of all industrial gas-cleaning devices. The main reasons for the wide-spread use of cyclones are that they are inexpensive to purchase, they have no moving parts, and they can be constructed to withstand harsh operating conditions. The gas flow is forced into a downward spiral simply because of the cyclone’s shape and the tangential entry. Another type of cyclone employs an axial inlet with fixed turning vanes to achieve a spiraling flow. Centrifugal force and inertia cause the particles to move outward, collide with the outer wall, and then slide downward to the bottom of the device. Near the bottom of the cyclone, the gas reverses its downward spiral and moves upward in a smaller inner spiral. The cleaned gas exits from the top through a “vortex-finder” tube, and the particles exit from the bottom of the cyclone through a pipe sealed by a spring-loaded flapper valve or rotary valve.